What is ecology – Bekia Hogar

This science is very important for understanding how different living things interact with each other in the environment in which they live.

Ecology is the science that studies the relationship of living things with the environment in which they live, and although it sounds simple, in fact the study is not so simple, since it is responsible for biodiversity, interactions between different species and changes that the environment may undergo. This study focuses on fertility, mortality and migration and how they affect the distribution species, populations and evolution of communities. Ecology is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology and earth sciences.

The first person to talk about this term was Haeckel in 1869, who coined the term from the Greek words oikos, meaning house, dwelling, and logos, meaning study or treatise.. Haeckel initially understood ecology as the science that studies the relationships of living beings with the environment, but later he expanded this definition to the study of the characteristics of the environment, which also includes the transfer of matter and energy, as well as their transformation through biological communities. And Ramon Margalef, one of the greatest Spanish ecologists, or Eugene P. Odum, is considered the father of modern ecology. Ancient philosophers such as Aristotle and Hippocrates laid the foundations of ecology in their studies of natural history, although clearer conclusions in this fascinating field of study were not achieved until much later.

Ecology studies the relationship of living beings with the environment.Ecology studies the relationship of living beings with the environment.

This research can be carried out in different ways:

  • Individual study, that is, of each organism in relation to its environment.
  • The study of populations, that is, the interaction of living beings belonging to the same species.
  • The study of communities, that is, the relationships between different populations living in the same territory.
  • The study of ecosystems, that is, the study of communities plus their interaction with the environment.
  • The study of the biosphere, that is, the study of all living things in general.

On the other hand, the habitat of a species can be divided into abiotic or physical factors such as humidity, temperature, sunlight, etc. and biological factors such as predator-prey relationships. For everything he studies in general terms It is an interdisciplinary science which uses other tools of science such as meteorology, geography, physics, chemistry or mathematics, and the latter, associated with statistics and mathematical models, carries a lot of weight.

Differences between ecology and environmentalism

While ecology studies the relationships of living things with the environment in which they live and the interactions between species, environmentalism is an ideology that summarizes the concept of ecology. into the field of social realitythat is, it is aimed at searching for new forms of development that are balanced with nature.

There are many disciplines related to ecology.There are many disciplines related to ecology.

Ecology disciplines

Although it is not entirely clear what is good and what is bad, the truth is that goals could be set and economics would be closely linked to ecology, giving priority to ecological economics.


It is a science that deals with the study of biological particles that are passively transported through the air.

microbial ecology

Study microorganisms in their natural environment that maintain the necessary continuous activity. for life on Earth.


He studies the distribution of living things on Earth, as well as the processes that cause it, change it, and can lead to its extinction.

mathematical ecology

It applies mathematical theorems and methods to problems of the relationship of living things with the environment.

urban ecology

This is a discipline whose object of study is the relationship of residents of an urban agglomeration and their multiple interactions with the environment.

Ecology of rest

This is a scientific study ecological relations between people and nature in a recreational context.

All of these disciplines are usually multidisciplinary.All of these disciplines are usually multidisciplinary.

Landscape ecology

It has to do with physical geography and biology. He studies natural landscapes, with a particular focus on human groups as transformers of their physical-ecological dynamics.


This is a branch of ecology that deals with the study of continental water systems.


The main focus is on studying the ecology of trees.

Regional ecology

It studies ecosystem processes, such as energy flow, matter cycling, or greenhouse gas production, at the scale of a regional landscape or biome.

Agronomy, fishing, etc.

They are related to ecology in the same way that most engineering is related to mathematics, physics, or chemistry.

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